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Are Annihilationism and Conditional Immortality legitimate Biblical doctrines?

July 5, 2024

Are Annihilationism and Conditional Immortality legitimate Biblical doctrines for orthodox Christians to uphold about the final judgement/punishment of unbelievers/non-Christians?

 

Note, ‘orthodox’ here is not referring to the Eastern Orthodox Church specifically, it refers to any Christians who affirm the essentials of the Christian faith like the early creeds and ‘rule of faith’. Also, I have included references in which many are ‘peer reviewed’ with academic recognition. However, while some are not recognized academically (noted at the bottom in capitals), I believe they contribute well to this essay paper, and now blog post, and involve reputable people within orthodox Christianity. No doubt, this paper will be a lot to process and quite a paradigm shift for some people. Especially those who currently believe that when people die, they simply either go to heaven forever or sadly go to hell forever, even though the embodied resurrection of the dead and the final judgement hasn’t happened yet. Another nuance is that scripture sometimes uses soul and spirit interchangeably.  While that doesn’t necessarily mean they are the same thing, I do not believe scripture suggests that people can be disembodied spirits without a soul, so with Matthew 10:28 (literal translations) describing both body and soul of unrepentant unbelievers being destroyed in Gehenna, I understand this as meaning the whole unsaved human being (body, soul, spirit), as scripture teaches that no one is immortal except God and those he gives immortality to through Christ.

 

Thoughts in a nutshell

Research suggests that the church, by the end of the second century and early third century, held three main views on final judgement/punishment. 1. Traditionalist view of Eternal Conscious Torment (ECT) for unrepentant unbelievers suffering forever and ever. 2. Conditional Immortality (CI) / Annihilationist view of only those in Christ gain immortality and eternal life, the unrepentant unbelievers will be punished according to their sins on the day of wrath but will ultimately be destroyed body and soul, annihilated/consumed and gone forever. 3. Universal Restoration (UR) in which the unrepentant unbelievers will suffer conscious punishment according to their sins until they are ultimately restored, and every knee shall bow before Jesus. (See Origen of Alexandria as the prominent third century church father expressing the UR view https://www.ccel.org/fathers). ECT and UR can be interpreted as been influenced by Plato’s popular concept of the ‘immortal soul’ of humans, and this ‘immortal soul’ concept does not seem biblical. (It seems more like Greek mythology than an original Hebrew view). CI, however, holds what seems to be the biblical view that only people who are justified righteous through a genuine faith in the Lord that produces good works and good fruit will gain immortality. Only God has immortality, and with undeserved amazing grace he gives it as a gift to those who truly ‘believe’ and are saved from destruction. The CI view generally holds that all evil rebelling against God (human or angelic or demonic etc) will eventually be destroyed and eradicated forever. My understanding of the CI view with the Gospel of Christ and His eternal Kingdom is that in the new heavens and earth to come for true believers, no one will ever have any desire to return to any sin against God. Nor will we have any pain or sorrow or any sorrowful memories anymore, instead we will be captivated by God’s glorious light, grace, truth, love, joy, peace, kindness and goodness in paradise forever.

 

Introduction

In this blog post, originally submitted as a shorter essay paper in my formal studies in 2023, I will show that Annihilationism when explained well with Conditional Immortality fits within Christian orthodoxy, both biblically and historically. It is not soft on sin or punishment; it shows God’s merciful and holy character with sacrificial love and righteous justice. At first, I present what scripture says about God, immortality, sin, forgiveness, and eternal life for repentant believers rather than death and destruction for unrepentant unbelievers. Then I mention early church evidence presenting some major viewpoints of Annihilationists, integrated with Conditional Immortality using Biblical support. I go on to present biblical and historical arguments from specific annihilationist proponents and include some counterarguments from traditionalists. Thirdly, firm opponents of annihilationism with their reasoning and some counterarguments from annihilationists, including explaining that Hades (the intermediate state and sometimes translated as hell) is not Gehenna (where final judgement is referring to like the lake of fire, Gehenna is also sometimes translated as hell). So, Luke 16:19-31 for example cannot be used as an argument for final judgment/punishment, it is a parable referring to the intermediate state. Fourthly, I present mild opponents and some who are uncertain either way. I conclude with reflections and possible implications of how the doctrines might impact people.

 

Annihilationism/Conditional Immortality and Counterarguments

According to biblical scripture, only God is immortal (1 Timothy 6:16 ESV) and no human being deserves to gain immortality of eternal life with God (Romans 3:23, 1 John 1:8). Everyone ultimately deserves death (Romans 6:23), however, God graciously and lovingly forgives and gives eternal life to those who genuinely repent of sins and believe in Jesus His only begotten Son, the Word of God who became flesh and blood (human) and dwelled among us (John 1) as the Way, the Truth, and the Life. (Old Testament saints believed in God and His Word to be justified righteous – Genesis 15:6). Rather than every person perishing (John 3:16 KJV) after facing God’s wrath for all their sins on the day of judgment and destruction (2 Peter 3:7), those who genuinely believe in Jesus, devoting their lives to Him with overflowing love from God, they will escape God’s wrath and final punishment of the ‘second death’ (Revelation 20:5-6) and instead will ultimately enter paradise of the new heavens and earth where there is no pain, sorrow, or death (Revelation 21:1-4).

There is strong evidence supporting annihilationism and conditional immortality from the very early church, along with the first century biblical scriptures.[1] With access to these writings and testing with scripture, more and more orthodox Christians are now embracing annihilationism with conditional immortality, (CI, Conditionalism) rejecting the teaching of eternal conscious torment in hell (Traditionalism, ECT or ET for eternal torment) for final judgement of unrepentant unbelievers[2]. Those advocating for conditional immortality believe in the ‘condition’ that only followers of Jesus Christ, who defeated sin and death (1 Cor 15:52-55)[3], will be bodily raised ‘immortal’ for eternal life (Romans 2:7). The unrepentant unbelievers will be bodily raised facing God’s righteous judgment, receiving wrath proportional to their sins (Romans 2:5), until ultimately being destroyed ‘body and soul’ in Gehenna/hell (Mat 10:28 TLV/ESV).[4] Furthermore, the wages of sin is death (Rom 6:23), the unrepentant will perish before God (Psalm 68:2), condemned to extinction (2 Pet 2:6), become ashes says the Lord (Mal 4:1-3), who is a consuming fire (Heb 12:29), consuming the unrepentant, (Isa 1:28, Heb 10:27) burning them up through unquenchable fire (Mat 3:11-12 NASB) in the second death (Rev 21:8), body and soul.[5] (This does not necessarily mean literal burning of humans in agony in flames, it does however at least depict symbolic language of the end of unrepentant unbelievers which includes a time of torment on account of their sins). Jude 7 parallels 2 Peter 2:6 with Sodom and Gomorrah been destroyed, burnt to ashes, an example for the ungodly at final punishment. (Although some might suggest this is only referring to God’s wrath on earth before the later final judgment where all unbelievers who have died are raised for final punishment. In a way, it could possibly be both like the many prophesies with more than one fulfillment; at God’s wrath at the end of the great tribulation, as well as later at the final judgment, with the latter being complete annihilation of body and soul, not just body).[6]

The next major aspect to point out is that Jesus’ sinless ‘atonement’ as “the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world” (John 1:29) was intense human ‘suffering until’ finally ‘dying on a cross’, not suffering eternal torment[7]. Jesus wasn’t annihilated body and soul, for he is God (John 1) “who alone has immortality” (1 Tim 6:16a), so he was bodily raised from the dead in his human nature to give the gift of eternal life to all humans who believe, repent from sin, grow in Christlikeness, and follow him into His Kingdom; that’s the beautiful Gospel of Christ.[8]

The late Edward Fudge, who had done the most extensive and profound research on this topic, emphasized the “hermeneutical choice”, that symbolic and hyperbolic language should be interpreted through hundreds of clear straight forward scriptural passages, not the other way around.[9] Fudge lists many scriptural passages showing that ‘perish’ and ‘destroyed’ means ‘killed’ and ‘consumed’,[10] and the ‘second death’ results in ‘annihilation as eternal punishment’.[11] Fudge explains that where the Greek word aiōnios is translated as ‘eternal’ in the context of eternal ‘salvation’ and ‘redemption’, it does not mean unending acts of saving and redeeming; nor ‘eternal judgment’, ‘destruction’, and ‘punishment’ as unending processes of judging, destroying, and punishing. So, everlasting destruction can efficiently be interpreted as a person being annihilated or eradicated, consumed by fire and gone forever, hence Fudge’s emphasis in his largest most thorough book ‘The Fire That Consumes’.[12] Another nuance in the term ‘eternal’ is that it can be hyperbolic for ‘a long time’ ‘until the end of that age’ or era. For example – fallen angels in ‘eternal chains’ ‘until judgment’ (Jude 6) means they are kept in chains for a long time until the final judgment process starts. While it says ‘eternal’ here, it is clearly not literally meaning eternal due to the word ‘until’.

The historical ‘Dead Sea Scrolls’ point to ‘the fire that consumes’ for the unrepentant, not eternal torment.[13] In Acts, the Apostles spread the Gospel of ‘Christ risen’, ‘defeating sin and death’, giving ‘eternal life’ to repentant believers, they do not ever speak of eternal torment for unrepentant unbelievers in Acts.[14] The earliest first and second century apostolic fathers used Biblical language of ‘eternal life or death’ (like Rom 6:23), not life or eternal torment.[15] Pagan philosopher Tertullian, who became a Christian convert, even though he mostly spoke against Platonism as a Christian, he wrote “I may use… the opinion of Plato…’Every soul is immortal”. Fudge avers Platonism gradually entered the Christian church (through some others less influential earlier, then Tertullian in the late second century) assuming immortal souls cannot ‘die’, ‘perish’, or be ‘destroyed’; despite contrary scripture (Matt 10:28, John 3:16).[16]

The Roman Catholic church and Eastern Orthodox church took on Plato’s popular “immortality of the soul” view which was eventually questioned by Martin Luther in the Protestant reformation. William Tyndale agreed with Luther’s reasons to question it. Many Anabaptists believed in annihilationism and opposed the idea of ‘immortal souls’ and the doctrine of eternal torment. On the other hand – John Calvin opposed those Anabaptists and kept the traditional doctrine of eternal torment. Luther became quiet about it after Calvin wrote a book including his view on the topic. Heinrich Bullinger wrote Calvin’s ideas into the ‘Second Helvetic Confession’, becoming the ‘Westminster theologian’s model’ and rejected annihilationism in support of eternal torment.[17] Fudge asserts that once ECT was firmly established, most church leaders adjusted hermeneutics (interpretations) and faith confessions accordingly, even when explanations seemed opposite to straight forward scripture.[18]

Over the years, many traditionalists have called out annihilationism as if it is heretical, however, there was increasing orthodox Christian acceptance since John Wenham’s ‘The Goodness of God’ from a mainstream evangelical publisher in 1975.[19] Wenham expressed that many people have presuppositions including the traditional teaching on hell, urging bible readers to try to think as the biblical writers thought, being aware of cultural biases.[20] Basil Atkinson referred to the ‘weeping and gnashing of teeth’ as being at the ‘throne of judgment’ (Matt 24:51) where the unholy acts of the wicked are revealed to them in despair before their ultimate destruction’.[21] There would be plenty of torment at that throne of judgment but Atkinson believed that it finally ends in the ‘second death’ according to Revelation 21:8.

Many traditionalists quote Revelation 20:10 as proof text for ECT of Satan, the beast, and the false prophet, along with all unbelievers later in Revelation been thrown in also. However, there is scripture contrastingly supporting a dual prophesy referring to the King of Tyre and Satan (Ezek 28:11-19) who will come to a ‘dreadful end and be no more forever’.[22] Clarke Pinnock stated that the strongest traditionalist argument is its “long tradition since Augustine” but with “scriptural support weak and objections strong”.[23] While Augustine had many virtues in the faith, he was not perfect and was very influential on this traditional teaching. Side note, Origen of Alexandria was influential in his universal restoration (UR) view, at least for a while before Augustine.

John Stott pondered – “how strange for people to have eternal destruction without being destroyed and how difficult to imagine a continued process of perishing”.[24] He suggested surveying the bible afresh, with annihilationism possibly or even likely being true.[25]

 

Firm Annihilationism Opponents and Counterarguments 

John MacArthur firmly spoke against annihilationists, quickly dismissing their interpretation of ‘destruction’. While he makes some pertinent points for what destruction could mean, he did not refer to the word ‘kill’ in that context (Mat 10:28). Additionally, elsewhere he must reinterpret the word ‘death’ and the term ‘second death’ to mean the unrepentant will be ‘living’ in hell eternally. Or perhaps eternally dying without really dying.[26] On the other hand – Dr Glenn Peoples extensively rebukes harshness and dismissiveness from many traditionalists like MacArthur towards annihilationists and calls for a more thorough and open investigation from traditionalists.[27]

D.A Carson contemplates that annihilationism could be resulting from pluralism, and being unfaithful to hard scripture.[28] This is worth exploring but not assuming, for many annihilationists interpret that there will be terrifying processes on the wicked before their eternal extinction.[29] William Crockett presents metaphorical ECT arguments and cites Josephus, suggesting ‘souls are imperishable’ and the wicked must ‘suffer eternally’.[30]  And Robert Peterson states CI is inconsistent with sound biblical doctrine, while Fudge responds saying CI “follows God’s doctrine” who “alone has immortality” (1 Tim 6:16), for humans are mere mortals (Ps 56:4 NLT) unless given imperishable immortality through putting on Christ (1 Cor 15:52-55).[31] R. Albert Mohler Jr stresses that questioning and revising traditionalism of ECT comes at great cost, modifying systematic theology by effect and downplaying the Gospel.[32] Counterargument – Wenham perceives ECT as often hindering the Gospel and not being faithful to scripture and God’s character and justice.[33]

J.I Packer disagrees with annihilationism but calls many annihilationists “honoured fellow-evangelicals”.[34] Gavin Ortlund refers to J.I Packer’s reasons for not being an annihilationist and presents annihilationists as submitting to sentiment over scripture[35]. Chris Date responds with many profound biblical and historical rebuttals of what Packer and Ortlund presented and with much evidence for CI and annihilationism.[36]  John Stackhouse Jr (who formerly replaced Packer’s position as Professor of Theology and Culture at Regent College) now interprets annihilationism as the correct biblical view.[37] Before Preston Sprinkle changed to annihilationism, he was general editor of ‘Four Views on Hell’ and commended Stackhouse Jr, concluding that annihilationism is a biblical evangelical credible alternative to the traditional doctrine of hell and final punishment.[38]

Robert Yarbrough cites ‘The Rich man and Lazarus’ (Luke 16:19-31) as support for ECT.[39] Date writes that this is a ‘parable’ and it refers to ‘Hades’ and ‘not about final punishment’ in the ‘lake of fire’ or ‘Gehenna’. It is not applicable here, Hades in this context is referring to the intermediate state, between the first death of the body and the second death of final punishment with the body and soul being destroyed in Gehenna. At the end, death and Hades are also destroyed in the lake of fire (Rev 20:14).[40]

 

Mild Annihilationism Opponents or Uncertain

In the strongly acclaimed book ‘The Mosaic of Christian Belief: Twenty Centuries of Unity and Diversity’[41], Roger Olsen states that annihilationism with conditional immortality are biblical doctrines currently interpreted by the minority within Christian orthodoxy.[42] Got Questions Ministries also acknowledges CI[43] as within orthodoxy.[44] Dr Michael Brown is uncertain about both CI and ECT[45].  Well respected Apologist and Pastor ‘Mike Winger’ is open to the possibility of annihilationism and conditional immortality being true, he plans to investigate it thoroughly for a presentation in the future.[46] Ben Witherington III, and more and more evangelical scholars, validate CI and annihilationism as within Christian orthodoxy.[47]

 

Conclusion

            This essay presents much support for ‘annihilationism and conditional immortality’ as fitting within Christian orthodoxy, both biblically and historically. I see the strongest case biblically and theologically, considering “the wages of sin is death” (Rom 6:23), is Jesus’ atonement, who suffered intensely ‘unto death’, not eternal torment. And those unrepentant will be ‘destroyed both body and soul’ in Gehenna which is also interpreted as the lake of fire and ‘second death’. From historical evidence, this essay draws out what seems to be Plato’s ‘immortal soul’ concept infiltrating Christianity in the mid to late second century, influencing the doctrine of eternal torment for the unrepentant unbelievers to become traditional teaching on hell, despite scripture and early apostolic fathers contrarily teaching ‘eternal life or death’ and not ‘life or eternal torment’, for ‘God is a consuming fire’ who ‘consumes the unrepentant’.

Regarding possible implications, I agree with Wenham[48] and Pinnock[49] that the doctrine of hell being eternal torment can be perceived by some people as a hideously monstrous doctrine, contributing to their rejection of Christianity, and hindering rather than helping evangelism of the Gospel of Christ and His Kingdom. With Stott, I concur that annihilationism combined with conditional immortality should be openly and respectfully discussed as a possible true biblical doctrine, and we should prayerfully consider the implications of that. Either way, as Olsen states, it is still a diverse view within Christian orthodoxy and should not be easily dismissed as heresy or false teaching.

Finally, I understand that many genuine Christians believe the traditional view of hell is true, some even view annihilationism as soft on God’s fiery wrath and that it is incorrect doctrine. However, I think this essay shows ‘conditional immortality’ and ‘annihilationism’ is not soft on sin or God’s punishment and upholds God’s merciful and holy character with amazing sacrificial love and true righteous justice. God’s grace for us of eternal life over death through Christ is amazing, and the Holy Spirit illuminates God’s love that endures forever! This should inspire sharing the Gospel of Christ fruitfully, not hinder it.

 

Final thoughts

I have another paper I am working on with thousands of words to condense for a future blog post. So, there will be ‘Part B’ on this topic where I will be going deeper and broader on the hardest passages to interpret and explain, expanding on Revelation 20:10 for example and looking at three other common passages ECT advocates so often refer to in making their case. People can make a case from scripture and history on all three of those views (ECT, CI & UR).

While I have a strong conviction on this topic (and others) seeking sound exegesis and hermeneutics, I endeavour to stay humble and open to being corrected if there is any clear error or at least challenged by alternative interpretations. I understand we only know in part in this life (1 Cor 13:9-12) and won’t know everything until Jesus comes back and we are made perfect like him, understanding all things then. Until then, we can humbly learn from each other as iron sharpens iron, and I always seek the truth with love and grace from God, even though I fail at times. Us believers in Christ Jesus – Yeshua the Messiah, are one body and church ecclesia family and community koinonia with different spiritual gifts from God. We are called to love one another and build each other up in the faith and giftings, while discerning sound teaching from error or false teaching. We are to unite on the essentials, give liberty on the non-essentials, and with loving kindness in all things. Paraphrased quote from St. Augustine of Hippo (354–430 AD) who, even though was a major advocate for ECT, I consider him a true believer in Christ. Blessings in Christ.

 

Bibliography

Brown, Dr Michael. “Rethinking Hell Live 019: An Interview with Michael Brown,” 28 January 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3aTcLCZXM8E.

Carson, D. A. The Gagging of God: Christianity Confronts Pluralism. Fifteenth anniversary ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House, 2011.

Crockett, William V. Four Views on Hell. EPub ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Publishing, 2010.

Crossway Bibles, ed. ESV: Study Bible: English Standard Version. ESV text ed. Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Bibles, 2007.

Date, Chris. “CROSS PURPOSES: ATONEMENT, DEATH AND THE FATE OF THE WICKED,” 12 August 2012. https://rethinkinghell.com/2012/08/12/cross-purposes-atonement-death-and-the-fate-of-the-wicked/.

———. “LAZARUS AND THE RICH MAN: IT’S NOT ABOUT FINAL PUNISHMENT,” 23 June 2012. https://rethinkinghell.com/2012/06/23/lazarus-and-the-rich-man-its-not-about-final-punishment/.

———. “WHY J. I. PACKER IS (STILL) WRONG: A RESPONSE TO THE GOSPEL COALITION (PART 1).” Article, 23 October 2015. https://rethinkinghell.com/2015/10/23/why-j-i-packer-is-still-wrong-a-response-to-tgc-part-1/.

Date, Christopher M. “The Hermeneutics of Conditionalism: A Defense of the Interpretive Method of Edward Fudge.” Evang. Q. 891 (2018): 74–78.

Date, Christopher M., Gregory G. Stump, and Joshua W. Anderson, eds. Rethinking Hell: Readings in Evangelical Conditionalism. Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books, 2014.

Edwards, David L. Essentials: A Liberal-Evangelical Dialogue. 2. Aufl. London u.a: Hodder & Stoughton, 1990.

Fudge, Edward. Hell: A Final Word: The Surprising Truths I Found in the Bible. Abilene, Tex: Leafwood Publishers, 2012.

———. The Fire That Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of the Doctrine of Final Punishment. 3rd ed. Eugene, Or: Cascade Books, 2011.

Fudge, Edward, and Robert A. Peterson. Two Views of Hell: A Biblical & Theological Dialogue. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 2000.

Gospel Coalition – Gavin Ortlund citing JI Packer. “Why Annihilationism Is Wrong.” Article, 7 October 2015. https://www.thegospelcoalition.org/article/j-i-packer-on-why-annihilationism-is-wrong/.

Got Questions Ministries. “What Is Conditional Immortality?” Gotquestions.org, n.d. https://www.gotquestions.org/conditional-immortality.html.

gotquestions.org. “What Is Annihilationism / Conditional Immortality? – Podcast Episode 39,” n.d. https://podcast.gotquestions.org/episode-39.html.

Morgan, Christopher W., and Robert A. Peterson, eds. Hell under Fire: Modern Scholarship Reinvents Eternal Punishment. Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan, 2004.

Olson, Roger E. The Mosaic of Christian Belief: Twenty Centuries of Unity & Diversity. 2nd Edition. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2016.

Peoples, Dr Glenn. “An Open Letter to My Traditionalist Friends,” n.d. http://www.rightreason.org/article/theology/open-letter-traditionalist-friends.pdf.

Sprinkle, Preston M., ed. Four Views on Hell. Second Edition. Counterpoints: Bible and Theology. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 2016.

Stewart, Don. “Is Ezekiel Speaking of Satan or the King of Tyre?,” n.d. https://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/don_stewart/don_stewart_82.cfm.

“Https://Rethinkinghell.Com/Explore/,” n.d.

“Https://Rethinkinghell.Com/Statement/,” n.d.

John MacArthur Explains Annihilation-Ism (Is Hell Temporary or Eternal?). You Tube, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Of6U-Fc5TQQ.

Lecture – Edward Fudge – The Fire That Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of Hell, 2011.

Mike Winger Is Open to Annihilationism. You Tube, 2023. https://youtu.be/lvKn-m_OeDY?si=xCOStZ61LmkL490_&t=86.

 

[1] Edward Fudge, The Fire That Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of the Doctrine of Final Punishment, 3rd ed. (Eugene, Or: Cascade Books, 2011), 253–97.

[2] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED – “Https://Rethinkinghell.Com/Explore/,” n.d. Refer to the bottom – Some Major Proponents of Conditionalism (includes from first century onwards).

[3] Crossway Bibles, ed., ESV: Study Bible: English Standard Version, ESV text ed. (Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Bibles, 2007) (ALL BIBLE VERSES ARE FROM ESV UNLESS SPECIFIED).

[4] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED “Https://Rethinkinghell.Com/Statement/,” n.d.

[5] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED “Https://Rethinkinghell.Com/Explore/.”

[6] Preston M. Sprinkle, ed., Four Views on Hell, Second Edition., Counterpoints: Bible and Theology (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 2016), 194.

[7] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED Chris Date, “CROSS PURPOSES: ATONEMENT, DEATH AND THE FATE OF THE WICKED,” 12 August 2012, https://rethinkinghell.com/2012/08/12/cross-purposes-atonement-death-and-the-fate-of-the-wicked/.

[8] II. The Telos of the Gospel – Christopher M. Date, “The Hermeneutics of Conditionalism: A Defense of the Interpretive Method of Edward Fudge,” Evang. Q. 891 (2018): 74–78.

[9] Fudge, The Fire That Consumes, 251–52.

[10] Edward Fudge, Hell: A Final Word: The Surprising Truths I Found in the Bible (Abilene, Tex: Leafwood Publishers, 2012), loc. 989.

[11] Lecture – Edward Fudge – The Fire That Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of Hell, 2011.

[12] Fudge, The Fire That Consumes, 41–42.

[13] Fudge, Hell, loc. 902.

[14] Fudge, Hell, loc. 1752.

[15] citing the Didache and Ignatius of Antioch etc – Fudge, Hell, locs. 1615–1631.

[16] citing Tertullian’s book “On the Resurrection of the Flesh” – Fudge, Hell, locs. 1615–1631.

[17] Fudge, Hell, locs. 1670–1676.

[18] Fudge, Hell, locs. 1679–1684.

[19] Fudge, Hell, locs. 1780–1785.

[20] citing Wenham – Christopher M. Date, Gregory G. Stump, and Joshua W. Anderson, eds., Rethinking Hell: Readings in Evangelical Conditionalism (Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books, 2014), 79.

[21] citing Atkinson – Date, Stump, and Anderson, Rethinking Hell, 99–100.

[22] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED Don Stewart, “Is Ezekiel Speaking of Satan or the King of Tyre?,” n.d., https://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/don_stewart/don_stewart_82.cfm.

[23] citing Pinnock -Date, Stump, and Anderson, Rethinking Hell, 71.

[24] citing Stott – David L. Edwards, Essentials: A Liberal-Evangelical Dialogue, 2. Aufl. (London u.a: Hodder & Stoughton, 1990), 316.

[25] citing Stott – Date, Stump, and Anderson, Rethinking Hell, 51.

[26] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED John MacArthur Explains Annihilation-Ism (Is Hell Temporary or Eternal?), You Tube, 2021, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Of6U-Fc5TQQ.

[27] Dr Glenn Peoples, “An Open Letter to My Traditionalist Friends,” n.d., 1, http://www.rightreason.org/article/theology/open-letter-traditionalist-friends.pdf.

[28] D. A. Carson, The Gagging of God: Christianity Confronts Pluralism, Fifteenth anniversary ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House, 2011), 56.

[29] citing Ralph G. Bowles – Date, Stump, and Anderson, Rethinking Hell, 153.

[30] citing Josephus – William V. Crockett, Four Views on Hell, EPub ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Publishing, 2010), 68.

[31] Edward Fudge and Robert A. Peterson, Two Views of Hell: A Biblical & Theological Dialogue (Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 2000), 207–8.

[32] from R. Albert Mohler – Christopher W. Morgan and Robert A. Peterson, eds., Hell under Fire: Modern Scholarship Reinvents Eternal Punishment (Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan, 2004), 45.

[33] citing Wenham – Date, Stump, and Anderson, Rethinking Hell, 94.

[34] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED Chris Date, “WHY J. I. PACKER IS (STILL) WRONG: A RESPONSE TO THE GOSPEL COALITION (PART 1),” Article, 23 October 2015, https://rethinkinghell.com/2015/10/23/why-j-i-packer-is-still-wrong-a-response-to-tgc-part-1/.

[35] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED Gospel Coalition – Gavin Ortlund citing JI Packer, “Why Annihilationism Is Wrong,” Article, 7 October 2015, https://www.thegospelcoalition.org/article/j-i-packer-on-why-annihilationism-is-wrong/.

[36] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED – From full series of part 1 to 3 – Date, “WHY J. I. PACKER IS (STILL) WRONG: A RESPONSE TO THE GOSPEL COALITION (PART 1).”

[37] citing John Stackhouse Jr – Sprinkle, Four Views on Hell, 13.

[38] Sprinkle, Four Views on Hell, 195.

[39] from Robert Yarbrough – Morgan and Peterson, Hell under Fire, 78.

[40] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED Chris Date, “LAZARUS AND THE RICH MAN: IT’S NOT ABOUT FINAL PUNISHMENT,” 23 June 2012, https://rethinkinghell.com/2012/06/23/lazarus-and-the-rich-man-its-not-about-final-punishment/.

[41] Roger E. Olson, The Mosaic of Christian Belief: Twenty Centuries of Unity & Diversity, 2nd Edition. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2016).

[42] citing Roger Olsen – Date, Stump, and Anderson, Rethinking Hell, 289.

[43] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED gotquestions.org, “What Is Annihilationism / Conditional Immortality? – Podcast Episode 39,” n.d., https://podcast.gotquestions.org/episode-39.html.

[44] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED Got Questions Ministries, “What Is Conditional Immortality?,” gotquestions.org, n.d., https://www.gotquestions.org/conditional-immortality.html.

[45] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED Dr Michael Brown, “Rethinking Hell Live 019: An Interview with Michael Brown,” 28 January 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3aTcLCZXM8E.

[46] NOT ACADEMICALLY RECOGNIZED Mike Winger Is Open to Annihilationism, You Tube, 2023, https://youtu.be/lvKn-m_OeDY?si=xCOStZ61LmkL490_&t=86.

[47] citing Ben Witherington III – Date, Stump, and Anderson, Rethinking Hell, 292.

[48] citing Wenham – Date, Stump, and Anderson, Rethinking Hell, 94.

[49] citing Pinnock – Crockett, Four Views on Hell, 39.

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